International Trade and Competitiveness


World Bank Projects


  • Identifying service sectors with high potential growth in the Dominican Republic – 2021–22 (Advisory)
  • Cambodia, Country Economic Memorandum – Chapter on Services Trade and PTAs, 2020 (advisory)
  • Services Trade and Investment in the Pacific Alliance countries – 2017–18 (advisory)

As Staff:

  • EC Economic Diversification & Industrial Services – 2016. Ecuador (lending)
  • Ecuador Competitiveness and Services for Competitiveness – 2013–15 Ecuador (advisory)


International trade, investment and competitiveness

  • Rubalcaba, L. (2022) Competitiveness. In Richardson, D. et al. (eds.) The International Encyclopedia of Geography. People, the Earth, Environment and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Rubalcaba, L., Hernández, L. (2018) Services Trade and Investment in the Pacific Alliance countries. Chapter 1. The growth of services trade and investment in the PA countries. The World Bank Group.
  • Rubalcaba, L. and Toivonen, M. (2015). Internationalisation of services: modes and the particular case of Knowledge-intensive Business Services. In Peter Daniels and John Bryson (Eds) The Handbook of Service Business. Edward Elgar.
  • Visintin, S., Maroto, A., Di Meglio, G., and Rubalcaba, L. (2010) The Role of Cost Related Factors in the Competitiveness of European Services. The Global Economy Journal (bepress). Vol. 10, Issue 3: 4.
  • Rubalcaba, L., Visintin, S. (2010) Crossing borders: exploring the relationships between different modes of international provision of services. In Business service, competitiveness and internationalization, Rubettino.
  • Stare, M. and Rubalcaba, L. (2009). International Outsourcing of Services—What Role for Central and East European Countries? Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Vol. 45, 5, 31-46.
  • Rubalcaba, L. and Van Welsum, D. (2007). Globalisation and Global Sourcing in Business Services. In The Contribution of Business Services to European Economic Growth. Edited by L. Rubalcaba and H. Kox. Palgrave-MacMillan, pp. 213-230
  • Cuadrado, J. R., Rubalcaba, L., and Bryson, J. (2002) Trading Services in the Global Economy, 2002. Edward Elgar.